OH wxyZ -WE MAY NEVER GET DOWN AGAIN: what we knew about global viruses in 2005
we welcome ideas on zooms june 2020 -10th remembrance of dad norman macrae - chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk
June marks the 10 anniversary of death of my father Norman Macrae The Economist's entrepreneurial revolution and end poverty sub-editor. We are organising a zoom calendar. I have appended a short excerpt of The Economist's remembrance party.
Favorite events after his death-
the Japan Embassy in Dhaka and Open Society Laureate Sir Fazle Abed organised 2 dinner roundtables on the future of university and future of fintech -transforming education and health by 2025 was the core idea of my father and my 2025 report published in 1984 as timelines to sustainability opposite to orwell's end game

Adam Smith scholars held an event at Glasgow U aiming to celebrate bottom up entrepreneurs 250th year of man and machines started by smith and james watt in 1760 - an online catalogue of papers helped me learn a lot!

Dad had survived war as teen navigating raf planes over modernday myanmar- not to every politician's liking, he was always trying to roll back the traps across the old world continent caused primarily by britannia and japan's colonial era- father saw people like Soros and Gorbachev as huge heroes- one of dad's main retirement projects was the biography of John Von Neumann

Optimistic Rationalism is as vital in 2020 as any time in my memory.
sincerely, chris macrae washington dc +1 240 316 8157

masterclass100.com a young journalists research coalition of
The Norman Macrae Archive

breaking april 2020 join guterres coalitions lets end all wars on people and unite around ending virus
2020s sdgs most exciting decade -
according to adam smith school of economics and humanities started 1760, at least 4 of sdg world's top 10 economists abed ma gandhi and brilliant have a lot in common- they all valued education and health as building economies not vice versa-all needed alumni to study borlaug app'd to rice science to end billion people famines across all of rural asia- furthermore, ma and abed - however much their life work focused on financing health and village markets value chains -wanted their legacy to include arts/sports for all- kobe.mba recommends you start up with cindy mi to make this connection- or global classroom twitter listings

more connections at economisthealth.com economistrefugee.comeconomistarts.com economistsports.net- masterclass100.com

human development's most urgent question- how will next girl/boy born be included in entrepreneurially joyful life? mapped from 3 future history's
-last call UN5.0 sdgs:2030-2015
-first post-colonial call UN san francisco 2030-1945
-start of engineering & markets morals glasgowU 2030-1760

lets begin with :IF you are a young refugee your life depends not on people chatting about the 17 sdgs but peer to peer apprenticing replicable solutions goals 1-6 go together - you need a coalition between teachers and students that explains goal 1 ending poverty is linked to how to finance the refugee to maximise community last mile health services and unless you are in a camp to maximise food and water security and safety for women as much as for boys-brac partners inspired for half a century by former royal dutch shell ceo for east pakistan fazle abed have been developing this action learning curricula for 50 years and currently update it with rohinga and wherever un hubs of education above all connect refugees -as well as curricula sustaining refugees brac partners wizards likemit/quadirs/gates/jack ma in delivering digital finance for unbanked

- goal 5G 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G
radical edu 1 2

Soros founded CEU-graduate institution-30 years out of homeland Budapest moved nov2019 to Vienna, Soros Central European Uni- uniting post USSR youth with global youth- mitigating conflicts of EU, middle east, landlocked epicenter of Eurasia east west- and arctic circle north to mid east to African south: the UN world of health, peace and trade, global sports, mobile tech hub out of Vienna, Geneva neutrality of bankers, ethics global sports ngos and hopefully climate adaptability risk – alumni of ban ki-moon, and music/arts city of europe

OSF’s Higher Education Support Program (HESP) effectively served as a Marshall Plan for higher education in Central and Eastern Europe. CEU, founded in 1991, became a unique model in graduate education

CEU hosts annual 5 day student friendships summit “get engaged”

OSBs MK 1 2 Tweet Alex soros georgesoros

Mar 31 The organization I founded, the Open Society Foundations, will contribute €1 million to aid the city of Budapest in solidarity with the people of my birthplace in the midst of this unprecedented emergency. https://trib.al/rGcfGjZ

Bard university- 21stc Swarthmore out of NY state- led by world class musical composer Leon Botstein- trusted by Soros as facilitator in chIef- was growing great NY hub on 86st but currently all hubs closed down- experiential learning of American and global youth friendships- first access to Soros Open Society culture hubs & economists. LB +OS global12 Soros G A MsA Kaletsky MallochB CEU Ignatieff Rev Krastev MsCattaui Gaspard D-Sachs SchiffrinCU

Princeton U global history lab .. mooc

Hub in high schools with Brooklyn library with branches long island, Baltimore, DC, & returning citizens.

Bard at berlin. At QUIDS Palestine


Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs (United States) 1
Chatham House (United Kingdom) 1
Institute for New Economic Thinking (United States and United Kingdom) -see lower box
Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen (Austria) 1
Open Society Archives (Hungary) 1
Rift Valley Institute (Kenya) 1
The Talloires Network boston tufts uni 1

Out of Dhaka, ABED U of BRAC & OSUN. Led today by Vincent Chang, Fazle Abed began Brac U with friends of James Grant health college including Swarthmore epidemiologist David Fraser. The goal to celebrate SDG futures of Asian youth, public servants, tech leaders, girl-safe community-links with world’s largest ngo partnership. Abed’s 50 years of poverty alleviation networking stemmed from being Glasgow engineering graduate and Royal Dutch Shell regional CEO for East Pakistan. Brac empowers village women community building- microfranchising health food, finance livelihood edu 1- first 30 years peer to peer in villages with no electricity- last 20 years choose leapfrog partners. brac and ashesi only wise laureates where university is core model celebrated by Sheihka Moza

Brac = world’s largest 2g fintech poor www.bkash.com with mit-legatum, gates, jack ma and integrated partner licenes such as ultra poor recent nobel prize win for mit poverty lab, james grant school of public health, lego-brac global pre-schools with yidan (ten cent hong kong) and yidan Europe- cambridge Uni- adolescent girls clubs brac international netherlands and mastercard foundation Canada. Gabv.org with visa presencing institute mit. Brac triangualised microhealth, microedu, microfinance-in scaling economic coalition it connects 4 value chains of sustainability – ie one village, 200k villages, national, global

osun members update nov 2020- OSUN Partners Colleges and Universities Al-Quds University/Al-Quds Bard American University of Beirut American University in Bulgaria American University of Central Asia Arizona State University Ashesi University Bard College Bard College at Simon’s Rock Bard College Berlin Bard Early Colleges Birkbeck, University of London Center BRAC University Central European University European Humanities University Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, Romania Sciences Po SOAS, University of London Universidad de los Andes University of the Witwatersran

Research and Educational Institutions Bard Prison Initiative Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs Chatham House Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen Institute for New Economic Thinking Parami Institute Princeton Global History Lab Rift Valley Institute The Talloires Network University of California, Berkeley Human Rights

1 2Out of Accra, Ghana Ashesi U founded by Patrick Awuah and friends Microsoft Seattle -future of African sdg youth, public servant leaders, tech, youth hubs. Patrick adapting 20 years collaboratory of Africa new Unis and hubs (eg Kenya Ihub). Ashesi is the main U model celebrated by WISE’s Moza & Ghana president -both top 17 UN eminents of SDGs- and closely mentored by Mahbubani of Singapore Uni celebrating and dedicated to Lee Kuan Yew- next Mahbubani worldwide seminar out of china institute in NY- 4/7/2020. Africa also has greatest medical teaching school last mile health in Rwanda Jim Yong Kim/Paul Farmer. Soros had sponsored brac Liberia and sierra leone ahead of ebola)

Question – what works masterclass, zoom, various mooc platforms, Arizona states platforms, hujiang 40000 live classroom.,tencent/baidu platforms. how’s this vary by bandwidth

Arizona state soros us trusted leader in online education- major retirement project since 2009 of former intel ceo craig barrett- craig had tried Bangladesh-intel as his last csr project but knew yunus not abed

Vital edu jack ma 1 2

2009 Soros launched ineteconomics to reverse global meltdown and map rising community nets. Soros helps mediate moving beyond paper currencies and nationalist politicians. He supports theory of economics reflexivity which can help update 260 years of Smithian moral philosophy

In late 1990s soros 2 greatest sdg successes found jim kim and paul farmer, sponsored first mobile phone village tests- boston epicenter of both- by 2005 jim kim had found both gates and abed and by 2012 soros wanted ceu to br abed’s best partner-ceu also has 20 laureate alumni curricula starting with popper

Soros partnership with gorbachev and lech walesa caused birth of open society offices in 150 capitals, and soros helped gorbachev launch annual summit on nobel peace laureates aswell as youth solidarity networks-main partnerjournalists at club of rome also green advocates

Soros first philanthropy coined term entrepreneurial evolution with south African youth- potentially tracks world from mandela back to Gandhi- attenborough family is bbc world leading editor n nature and Gandhi-

London U -soas machel online – school oriental African studies & Birkbeck

Paris science po-nb parish hq of UN education & Unesco

ALSO American uni at Kyrgyzstan and Bulgaria, European U of humanities Lithuania, Fulbright U Vietnam, U los andes colombia

Open society laureates Austrian Karl popper origin of laureates 1994– global 2016 / MEDICINS SANS FRONTIERE 2014 / KRISTALINA GEORGIEVA EU crisis response Haiti, Pakistan, and Chile after natural disasters. 2012 / ARYEH NEIER, Former President of the Open Society Foundations- 2011 co-recipient 2011 / JAVIER SOLANA, RICHARD C. HOLBROOKE, 2010 / LOUISE ARBOUR, President and CEO of The International Crisis Group 2008 / KOFI A. ANNAN, Seventh Secretary-General of the United NationsGlobal south 2013 / SIR FAZLE HASAN ABED KCMG, Founder and Chairperson of BRAC 2006 / RICARDO LAGOS, Former President of ChileCentral Europe: 2018 / JANOS KORNAI 2007 / CARLA DEL PONTE, Former Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 2002 / MIKHEIL SAAKASHVILI, Former Minister of Justice of Georgia and co-recipient ZURAB ZHVANIA, 2001 / BRONISLAW GEREMEK, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland 2000 / ARPAD GONCZ, President of the Republic of Hungary and co-recipient MAMPHELA RAMPHELE, a Managing Director of the World Bank1999 / VACLAV HAVEL, President of the Czech Republic :: 2017 Germany Joachim Gauck 2015 / THE INTERNATIONAL RENAISSANCE FOUNDATION creation open society Ukraine- 2009 / MARTTI AHTISAARI, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2008), Former President of the Republic of FinlandUS 2019 / STIGLITZ T 2003 / TOM LANTOS, Congressman, U.S. House of Representatives

Monday, March 15, 1993

fauci in his own words 1993

full transcript
one is the new NIH Reauthorization Bill, which if I read it correctly, says that new AIDS monies will have to go through the OAR [Office of AIDS Research]. Please comment first on the bill in terms of whether this is just another layer of bureaucracy, and then I want to come back and talk about the AIDS czar, Ms. [Kristine] Gebbie, who has been appointed.

Fauci: The institute directors, including myself, were from the very beginning against the legislation to have the money go first to the OAR and then be distributed. We thought it might be a layer of bureaucracy that would interfere with getting the money to the people who execute the science. However, all things considered, the Administration and the Secretary wanted to go with it. We will do everything we can to make it work and not, in any manner or form, be obstructionist about it. There is a concern that we expressed in an official letter to Dr. Healy, which was then sent to the HHS Secretary, but that is water under the bridge. The law has passed and we will live with the law and make the best of it. Harden: Let me clarify. Is this law only for extramural funds, or is it for intramural ones as well? Fauci: All the money goes to the OAR, and then it gets redistributed to the institutes. The institutes ultimately get the money, but it stops in the Office first. Harden: But grant applications will not come to the OAR; they will still come to the institutes? Fauci: Yes. They will still come to the institutes. The OAR is the place where the money goes first and then it gets distributed, with the rationale that that Office will have the flexibility, if things change rapidly, of redistributing the money. But things do not happen that way in science. You could accomplish that with a small discretionary fund. Harden: With reference to Ms. Gebbie, who has been appointed as the White House AIDS Policy Coordinator, she will not, as I understand it, have a great deal of line power, so the term AIDS "czar" may not be appropriate. Fauci: She is not an AIDS czar. President Clinton has not called her that; she is AIDS Policy Coordinator. "AIDS czar" is an unfortunate term. Harden: What would her relationship be to biomedical research? She is not a scientist. Fauci: No. But the Policy Coordinator will have the responsibility of coordinating policy across agency lines. The AIDS epidemic has an impact on virtually every government agency. The purpose of an AIDS Policy Coordinator is to see that the 30 interactions among the agencies are unified and conform to a broad national plan for AIDS. That is one of her major responsibilities, to develop a broad national plan. Since the Department of Health and Human Services, and the NIH as a component of the Department of Health and Human Services, is a major player in the AIDS epidemic, we will obviously be a major part of the things that need to be coordinated with the other agencies. But there will be no directives telling an agency what to do. It will go through the individual secretaries. There is no anticipation that Kristine Gebbie will be telling the NIH Director, or myself, or anyone, what to do scientifically. Policies will be broadly coordinated across agencies, but it will be done through the secretary of that agency. Harden: Scientists are always interested in serendipity. I have spotted a couple of results from research on AIDS that had applications in other places. Are there any that you would like to highlight? Fauci: Certainly. What we know about the immune system has grown exponentially in the last ten years on the basis of having an unfortunate, but nonetheless extraordinary model of the destruction of the immune system. We have learned what components of the immune system are needed for the system to function properly, how they interact or rely on each other, particularly the focal nature of the CD4-positive T cell. It has markedly enhanced our understanding of the immune system. Secondly, it has given us insights into the whole area of drug development and vaccinology, because right now targeted drug development has gotten a great boost with HIV and AIDS. Diagnostics, the use of the polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic tool for other infectious diseases, and the understanding of the role of activators and enhancers of gene function have had major spinoffs from looking at, and dissecting with such great scrutiny, the regulation of the HIV genes. There are many areas that, even in such a short period of time, have benefited from the research on AIDS. I would expect that twenty or thirty years from now we will see spinoffs from the research that we could not possibly imagine, in the same way that spinoffs from the war on cancer were unpredictable twenty years ago. For instance, the entire field of retrovirology emanated out of the war on cancer. In addition, much of the molecular biology that we know today has emanated out of the war on cancer as well as out of the study of microorganisms. I think there will be an extraordinary benefit for all of science. Harden: Do you think we will have a vaccine or a therapy first for AIDS? Fauci: We already have a therapy for AIDS. It is not a very good therapy, but we have 31 one. Are we going to find a cure? I do not think that we will have a cure in the classic sense. I think we will have a combination of drugs that will suppress the virus so efficiently that an infected person could have a much greater prolongation of a disease-free state than we have with the currently available therapies. The nature of the virus may not allow us completely to eliminate all of the virus from the body. You would have to suppress chronically virus replication. The goal is to have a combination of drugs which, when administered early in the course of infection, would be able safely to extend the disease-free state to ten, twenty, thirty, or more years. Vaccines probably will be more of a problem because this is a virus that is transmitted by cells, as well as cell-free virus. You would have to protect against both. Whether or not that is feasible is unclear; I am hopeful that it will be. I am operating with the guarded optimism that we will have a vaccine by the end of this decade, but I cannot guarantee that. Harden: The National Research Council recently released a report predicting that AIDS will sink into the inner cities, and that the middle class will not have an epidemic in the United States. In that case, because people in the inner city are often not active politically, the prediction is that AIDS will become a political non-issue and research will stop. What is your response to this? Fauci: I think that the way that was "spun," as it were, to the public was unfortunate. Although I do not believe that the virus is going to be spread homogeneously throughout the population in the U.S.A., and it will be more focused in certain groups, cities, and areas, I do not believe that it will be as marginalized as the National Research Council report indicated. Take a look at the reports that came out two months ago that, in sixty-four cities in the United States, the leading cause of death among people between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four is AIDS. That goes beyond marginalization, I think. AIDS is not going be spread homogeneously, but it will not be a forgotten marginalized disease. I do not think there is any question about that. The data already tell us that. If I were, out of nowhere, to tell you that there is a single communicable disease that is the leading cause of death in sixty-four major cities in this country between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four, what would you consider that? I would consider it a public health catastrophe. Harden: What about on the larger, worldwide scale? What is our obligation to Thailand, let us say? Fauci: What is our obligation? You are talking about a social-politico-ethical issue on which I am certainly not qualified to give a definitive statement. But our 32 obligation exists only insofar as we have an obligation to our brothers and sisters throughout the world. You can make the same case for malaria, from which two to three million people a year die; for tuberculosis, from which three million people die; and for parasitic diseases, from which millions of people die. We have the same obligation, I guess, to worry about them as we do about people who are HIV-infected. I think we do have an obligation insofar as our resources, or neighborliness, enable us to execute those obligations. But I do not see how we can possibly be responsible for the entire world, given the fact that we are in somewhat of an economic crisis here in the United States.